Mayr's Database Of Reactivity Parameters
AK Prof. Mayr

Carbocations

For reactivities of structurally related compounds go to: Electrophiles » C-Electrophiles
Found 132 Molecules.
Molecule Solvent Reactivity Parameters Classification Reference (sort by title or year)
image of molecule

(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)ethylium ion
0E Parameter: 6.04
*Macromolecules 2005, 38, 33-40
DOI: 10.1021/ma048389o
image of molecule

(2S,5S)-5-benzyl-3-methyl-4-oxo-1-(3-phenylallylidene)-2-((E)-styryl)imidazolidin-1-ium
dichloromethaneE Parameter: -5.90
**Asian J. Org. Chem. 2014, 3, 550-555
DOI: 10.1002/ajoc.201402009
image of molecule

(3-CF3)-tritylium ion
E Parameter: 1.18
-J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2003, 125, 286-295
DOI: 10.1021/ja021010y
image of molecule

(3-Cl)-tritylium ion
E Parameter: 1.06
-J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2003, 125, 286-295
DOI: 10.1021/ja021010y
image of molecule

(3-Cl)3-tritylium ion
E Parameter: 1.99
-J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2003, 125, 286-295
DOI: 10.1021/ja021010y
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(3-F)-tritylium ion
E Parameter: 1.01
*Eur. J. Org. Chem. 2011, , 6470-6475
DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201100910
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(3-F)2-tritylium ion
E Parameter: 1.54
*Eur. J. Org. Chem. 2011, , 6470-6475
DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201100910
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(3-F)3-tritylium ion
E Parameter: 2.07
*Eur. J. Org. Chem. 2011, , 6470-6475
DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201100910
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(3-F)4-tritylium ion
E Parameter: 2.54
*Eur. J. Org. Chem. 2011, , 6470-6475
DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201100910
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(4-CF3)-tritylium ion
E Parameter: 1.33
-J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2003, 125, 286-295
DOI: 10.1021/ja021010y
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(4-CF3)2-tritylium ion
E Parameter: 2.28
-J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2003, 125, 286-295
DOI: 10.1021/ja021010y
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(4-F)-tritylium ion
E Parameter: 0.35
*Eur. J. Org. Chem. 2011, , 6470-6475
DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201100910
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(4-F)2-tritylium ion
E Parameter: 0.17
*Eur. J. Org. Chem. 2011, , 6470-6475
DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201100910
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(4-F)3-tritylium ion
E Parameter: 0.05
*Eur. J. Org. Chem. 2011, , 6470-6475
DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201100910
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(4-Me)-tritylium ion
E Parameter: -0.13
-J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2003, 125, 286-295
DOI: 10.1021/ja021010y
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(4-Me)2-tritylium ion
E Parameter: -0.70
-J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2003, 125, 286-295
DOI: 10.1021/ja021010y
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(4-Me)3-tritylium ion
E Parameter: -1.21
-J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2003, 125, 286-295
DOI: 10.1021/ja021010y
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(4-MeO)-tritylium ion
E Parameter: -1.59
-Eur. J. Org. Chem. 2011, , 6470-6475
DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201100910
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(4-MeO)2-tritylium ion
E Parameter: -3.04
-J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2003, 125, 286-295
DOI: 10.1021/ja021010y
image of molecule

(4-MeO)3-tritylium ion
E Parameter: -4.35
-J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2003, 125, 286-295
DOI: 10.1021/ja021010y
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(4-MeO,3-OMe)-tritylium ion
E Parameter: -1.62
-J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2003, 125, 286-295
DOI: 10.1021/ja021010y
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(4-MeO,4-Me)-tritylium ion
E Parameter: -2.13
-J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2003, 125, 286-295
DOI: 10.1021/ja021010y
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(4-NMe2)-tritylium ion
E Parameter: -7.93
-J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2003, 125, 286-295
DOI: 10.1021/ja021010y
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(4-NMe2)2-tritylium ion (= Malachite green)
E Parameter: -10.29
-J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2003, 125, 286-295
DOI: 10.1021/ja021010y
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(4-NMe2)3-tritylium ion (= Crystal violet)
E Parameter: -11.26
-J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2003, 125, 286-295
DOI: 10.1021/ja021010y
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(4-OMe,3-Me)-tritylium ion
E Parameter: -1.84
-J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2003, 125, 286-295
DOI: 10.1021/ja021010y
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(ani)2CH+
0E Parameter: 0.00
*****J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2001, 123, 9500-9512
DOI: 10.1021/ja010890y
image of molecule

(dfp)(mfp)CH+
E Parameter: 7.52
*****J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2012, 134, 13902-13911
DOI: 10.1021/ja306522b
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(dfp)2CH+
E Parameter: 8.02
*J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2012, 134, 13902-13911
DOI: 10.1021/ja306522b
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(dfp)PhCH+
E Parameter: 6.74
*****J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2012, 134, 13902-13911
DOI: 10.1021/ja306522b
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(dma)2CH+
0E Parameter: -7.02
*****J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2001, 123, 9500-9512
DOI: 10.1021/ja010890y
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(dpa)2CH+
0E Parameter: -4.72
*****J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2001, 123, 9500-9512
DOI: 10.1021/ja010890y
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(E)-1,2-dimethyl-3-(4-methylbenzylidene)-3H-indol-1-ium ion
0E Parameter: -5.05
***J. Org. Chem. 2015, 80, 8643-8656
DOI: 10.1021/acs.joc.5b01298
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(E)-2-(tert-butyl)-3-(4-methylbenzylidene)-3H-indol-1-ium
dichloromethaneE Parameter: -5.06
*Eur. J. Org. Chem. 2016, , 4050-4058
DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201600572
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(E)-2-methyl-3-(4-methylbenzylidene)-3H-indol-1-ium ion
0E Parameter: -5.15
***J. Org. Chem. 2015, 80, 8643-8656
DOI: 10.1021/acs.joc.5b01298
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(E)-3-benzylidene-1,2-dimethyl-3H-indol-1-ium ion
0E Parameter: -4.96
**J. Org. Chem. 2015, 80, 8643-8656
DOI: 10.1021/acs.joc.5b01298
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(Ftol)2CH+
E Parameter: 5.24
*****J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2012, 134, 13902-13911
DOI: 10.1021/ja306522b
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(fur)(ani)CH+
E Parameter: -0.81
*****J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2012, 134, 13902-13911
DOI: 10.1021/ja306522b
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(fur)2CH+
0E Parameter: -1.36
*****J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2001, 123, 9500-9512
DOI: 10.1021/ja010890y
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(ind)2CH+
0E Parameter: -8.76
*****J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2001, 123, 9500-9512
DOI: 10.1021/ja010890y
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(jul)2CH+
0E Parameter: -9.45
*****J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2001, 123, 9500-9512
DOI: 10.1021/ja010890y
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(lil)2CH+
0E Parameter: -10.04
*****J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2001, 123, 9500-9512
DOI: 10.1021/ja010890y
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(mfa)2CH+
0E Parameter: -3.85
*****J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2001, 123, 9500-9512
DOI: 10.1021/ja010890y
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(mfp)2CH+
E Parameter: 6.87
*****J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2012, 134, 13902-13911
DOI: 10.1021/ja306522b
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(mfp)PhCH+
E Parameter: 6.23
*****J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2012, 134, 13902-13911
DOI: 10.1021/ja306522b
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(mor)2CH+
0E Parameter: -5.53
*****J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2001, 123, 9500-9512
DOI: 10.1021/ja010890y
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(mpa)2CH+
0E Parameter: -5.89
*****J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2001, 123, 9500-9512
DOI: 10.1021/ja010890y
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(pcp)2CH+
0E Parameter: 5.48
*****J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2012, 134, 13902-13911
DOI: 10.1021/ja306522b
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(pfa)2CH+
0E Parameter: -3.14
*****J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2001, 123, 9500-9512
DOI: 10.1021/ja010890y
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(pfp)2CH+
0E Parameter: 5.01
*****J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2012, 134, 13902-13911
DOI: 10.1021/ja306522b
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(PhCH2)2N+=CH-CH-Ph
0E Parameter: -8.50
***Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2008, 47, 8723-8726
DOI: 10.1002/anie.200802889
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(pyr)2CH+
0E Parameter: -7.69
*****J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2001, 123, 9500-9512
DOI: 10.1021/ja010890y
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(S,E)-2,2,3-trimethyl-4-oxo-1-((E)-3-phenylallylidene)-5-(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzyl)imidazolidin-1-ium
dichloromethaneE Parameter: -7.00
**Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2013, 52, 7967-7971
DOI: 10.1002/anie.201301864
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(S,E)-2,2,3-trimethyl-4-oxo-5-((perfluorophenyl)methyl)-1-((E)-3-phenylallylidene)imidazolidin-1-ium
dichloromethaneE Parameter: -6.00
**Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2013, 52, 7967-7971
DOI: 10.1002/anie.201301864
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(S,E)-5-((1H-indol-3-yl)methyl)-2,2,3-trimethyl-4-oxo-1-((E)-3-phenylallylidene)imidazolidin-1-ium
dichloromethaneE Parameter: -7.30
**Asian J. Org. Chem. 2014, 3, 550-555
DOI: 10.1002/ajoc.201402009
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(S,E)-5-benzyl-1-((E)-3-(4-(dimethylamino)phenyl)allylidene)-2,2,3-trimethyl-4-oxoimidazolidin-1-ium
dichloromethaneE Parameter: -10.60
**Asian J. Org. Chem. 2014, 3, 550-555
DOI: 10.1002/ajoc.201402009
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(S,E)-5-benzyl-1-((E)-3-(4-cyanophenyl)allylidene)-2,2,3-trimethyl-4-oxoimidazolidin-1-ium
dichloromethaneE Parameter: -6.00
**Asian J. Org. Chem. 2014, 3, 550-555
DOI: 10.1002/ajoc.201402009
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(S,E)-5-benzyl-1-((E)-3-(4-methoxyphenyl)allylidene)-2,2,3-trimethyl-4-oxoimidazolidin-1-ium
dichloromethaneE Parameter: -8.00
**Asian J. Org. Chem. 2014, 3, 550-555
DOI: 10.1002/ajoc.201402009
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(S,E)-5-benzyl-2,2,3-trimethyl-1-((E)-3-(3-nitrophenyl)allylidene)-4-oxoimidazolidin-1-ium
dichloromethaneE Parameter: -6.10
**Asian J. Org. Chem. 2014, 3, 550-555
DOI: 10.1002/ajoc.201402009
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(S,E)-5-benzyl-2,2,3-trimethyl-1-((E)-3-(4-nitrophenyl)allylidene)-4-oxoimidazolidin-1-ium
dichloromethaneE Parameter: -5.90
**Asian J. Org. Chem. 2014, 3, 550-555
DOI: 10.1002/ajoc.201402009
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(S,E)-5-benzyl-2,2,3-trimethyl-4-oxo-1-((E)-3-(p-tolyl)allylidene)imidazolidin-1-ium
dichloromethaneE Parameter: -7.20
**Asian J. Org. Chem. 2014, 3, 550-555
DOI: 10.1002/ajoc.201402009
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(tfm)2CH+
E Parameter: 7.96
**J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2012, 134, 13902-13911
DOI: 10.1021/ja306522b
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(tfm)PhCH+
0E Parameter: 6.70
*****J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2012, 134, 13902-13911
DOI: 10.1021/ja306522b
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(thq)2CH+
0E Parameter: -8.22
*****J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2001, 123, 9500-9512
DOI: 10.1021/ja010890y
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(tol)2CH+
0E Parameter: 3.63
*****J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2001, 123, 9500-9512
DOI: 10.1021/ja010890y
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1,1,3-triphenylallylium ion
0E Parameter: 0.98
***Acc. Chem. Res. 2003, 36, 66-77
DOI: 10.1021/ar020094c
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1,1,3-tris(4-(dimethylamino)phenyl)allylium ion
0E Parameter: -9.84
***Acc. Chem. Res. 2003, 36, 66-77
DOI: 10.1021/ar020094c
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1,1-bis(4-dimethylaminophenyl)-3-phenylallylium ion
0E Parameter: -8.97
***Acc. Chem. Res. 2003, 36, 66-77
DOI: 10.1021/ar020094c
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1,1-dianisyl-3-phenylallylium ion
0E Parameter: -2.67
***Acc. Chem. Res. 2003, 36, 66-77
DOI: 10.1021/ar020094c
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1,3-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)but-1-ylium ion
0E Parameter: 6.16
*Macromolecules 2005, 38, 33-40
DOI: 10.1021/ma048389o
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1,3-dithianylium ion
0E Parameter: -2.14
***Acc. Chem. Res. 2003, 36, 66-77
DOI: 10.1021/ar020094c
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1-(4-chlorophenyl)cyclopent-2-enylium ion
0E Parameter: 3.20
***Acc. Chem. Res. 2003, 36, 66-77
DOI: 10.1021/ar020094c
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1-methyl-3-((julolidin-9-yl)methylene)-3H-indol-1-ium ion
0E Parameter: -7.79
***J. Org. Chem. 2015, 80, 8643-8656
DOI: 10.1021/acs.joc.5b01298
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1-methyl-3-(4-methylbenzylidene)-3H-indol-1-ium ion
0E Parameter: -2.19
***J. Org. Chem. 2015, 80, 8643-8656
DOI: 10.1021/acs.joc.5b01298
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1-phenylcyclopent-2-enylium ion
0E Parameter: 2.89
***Acc. Chem. Res. 2003, 36, 66-77
DOI: 10.1021/ar020094c
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2-(4-methoxyphenyl)chromenylium ion
0E Parameter: -4.95
***Acc. Chem. Res. 2003, 36, 66-77
DOI: 10.1021/ar020094c
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2-phenyl-1,3-dithianylium ion
0E Parameter: -6.43
***Acc. Chem. Res. 2003, 36, 66-77
DOI: 10.1021/ar020094c
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2-phenyl-1,3-dithiolan-2-ylium ion
0E Parameter: -5.91
***Acc. Chem. Res. 2003, 36, 66-77
DOI: 10.1021/ar020094c
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3-(4-(dimethylamino)benzylidene)-1-methyl-3H-indol-1-ium ion
0E Parameter: -6.26
***J. Org. Chem. 2015, 80, 8643-8656
DOI: 10.1021/acs.joc.5b01298
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3-(4-methoxybenzylidene)-1-methyl-3H-indol-1-ium iom
0E Parameter: -3.02
***J. Org. Chem. 2015, 80, 8643-8656
DOI: 10.1021/acs.joc.5b01298
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3-benzylidene-1-methyl-3H-indol-1-ium ion
0E Parameter: -1.80
***J. Org. Chem. 2015, 80, 8643-8656
DOI: 10.1021/acs.joc.5b01298
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9-(4-(dimethylamino)phenyl)-9H-fluoren-9-ylium
dichloromethaneE Parameter: -4.51
***Chem. Eur. J. 2017, 23, 623-630
DOI: 10.1002/chem.201603963
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9-(4-methoxyphenyl)-9H-fluoren-9-ylium
dichloromethaneE Parameter: 0.85
***Chem. Eur. J. 2017, 23, 623-630
DOI: 10.1002/chem.201603963
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9-phenyl-9H-fluoren-9-ylium
dichloromethaneE Parameter: 2.41
***Chem. Eur. J. 2017, 23, 623-630
DOI: 10.1002/chem.201603963
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ani(Ph)CH+
0E Parameter: 2.11
*****J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2001, 123, 9500-9512
DOI: 10.1021/ja010890y
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ani(pop)CH+
0E Parameter: 0.61
*****J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2001, 123, 9500-9512
DOI: 10.1021/ja010890y
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ani(tol)CH+
0E Parameter: 1.48
*****J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2001, 123, 9500-9512
DOI: 10.1021/ja010890y
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benzhydrylium ion Ph2CH+
0E Parameter: 5.47
*****J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2012, 134, 13902-13911
DOI: 10.1021/ja306522b
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bis(1,2-dimethylindol-3-yl)methylium ion
0E Parameter: -10.23
***J. Org. Chem. 2015, 80, 8643-8656
DOI: 10.1021/acs.joc.5b01298
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bis(1-methylindol-3-yl)methylium ion
0E Parameter: -5.99
***J. Org. Chem. 2015, 80, 8643-8656
DOI: 10.1021/acs.joc.5b01298
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bis(5-methoxy-1-methylindol-3-yl)methylium ion
0E Parameter: -6.90
***J. Org. Chem. 2015, 80, 8643-8656
DOI: 10.1021/acs.joc.5b01298
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bis(julidin-9-yl)allylium ion
E Parameter: -9.78
***J. Org. Chem. 2011, 76, 9391-9408
DOI: 10.1021/jo201668w
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cumyl cation
E Parameter: 5.74
***Macromolecules 2010, 43, 1719-1723
DOI: 10.1021/ma9024569
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di-p-anisyl-allylium ion
E Parameter: -1.45
***J. Org. Chem. 2011, 76, 9391-9408
DOI: 10.1021/jo201668w
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di-p-tolyl-allylium ion
E Parameter: 1.23
***J. Org. Chem. 2011, 76, 9391-9408
DOI: 10.1021/jo201668w
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diarylallylium ion (3,3-F2)2
E Parameter: 6.11
***J. Org. Chem. 2011, 76, 9391-9408
DOI: 10.1021/jo201668w
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diarylallylium ion (3-F)2
E Parameter: 4.15
**J. Org. Chem. 2011, 76, 9391-9408
DOI: 10.1021/jo201668w
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diarylallylium ion (4-Br)2
E Parameter: 2.85
***J. Org. Chem. 2011, 76, 9391-9408
DOI: 10.1021/jo201668w
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diarylallylium ion (4-Cl)2
E Parameter: 2.69
*J. Org. Chem. 2011, 76, 9391-9408
DOI: 10.1021/jo201668w
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diarylallylium ion (4-NMe2)2
E Parameter: -7.50
***J. Org. Chem. 2011, 76, 9391-9408
DOI: 10.1021/jo201668w
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dibenzo[a,d]tropylium ion
dichloromethaneE Parameter: -0.63
-Liebigs Ann. 1995, , 2005-2009
DOI: 10.1002/jlac.1995199511281
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dimethylmethyleneammonium ion
0E Parameter: -6.69
*Acc. Chem. Res. 2003, 36, 66-77
DOI: 10.1021/ar020094c
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diphenylallylium ion
E Parameter: 2.70
***J. Org. Chem. 2011, 76, 9391-9408
DOI: 10.1021/jo201668w
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flavylium ion
0E Parameter: -3.45
***Acc. Chem. Res. 2003, 36, 66-77
DOI: 10.1021/ar020094c
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indolecarboxylate derived iminium ion
dichloromethaneE Parameter: -9.50
**Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2009, 48, 5034-5037
DOI: 10.1002/anie.200900933
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Jorgensen/Hayashi-iminium ion
0E Parameter: -8.20
***Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2008, 47, 8723-8726
DOI: 10.1002/anie.200802889
image of molecule

MacMillan-iminium ion (1st generation)
MeCNE Parameter: -7.37
***Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2011, 50, 9953-9956
DOI: 10.1002/anie.201103683
image of molecule

MacMillan-iminium ion (2nd generation)
MeCNE Parameter: -5.52
***Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2011, 50, 9953-9956
DOI: 10.1002/anie.201103683
image of molecule

MacMillan-iminium ion (spiro)
MeCNE Parameter: -7.67
***Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2011, 50, 9953-9956
DOI: 10.1002/anie.201103683
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Me2N+=CH-CH-Ph
0E Parameter: -9.20
***Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2008, 47, 8723-8726
DOI: 10.1002/anie.200802889
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methoxy-(4-methoxyphenyl)methylium ion
0E Parameter: 0.14
***Acc. Chem. Res. 2003, 36, 66-77
DOI: 10.1021/ar020094c
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methoxy-(4-methylphenyl)methylium ion
0E Parameter: 1.90
***Acc. Chem. Res. 2003, 36, 66-77
DOI: 10.1021/ar020094c
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methoxy-phenylmethylium ion
0E Parameter: 2.97
***Acc. Chem. Res. 2003, 36, 66-77
DOI: 10.1021/ar020094c
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methyl(phenyl)methyleneammonium ion
0E Parameter: -5.17
*Acc. Chem. Res. 2003, 36, 66-77
DOI: 10.1021/ar020094c
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mor iminium
0E Parameter: -8.60
***Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2008, 47, 8723-8726
DOI: 10.1002/anie.200802889
image of molecule

N-ethylidenecarbazolium ion
0E Parameter: 2.41
***Acc. Chem. Res. 2003, 36, 66-77
DOI: 10.1021/ar020094c
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N-methylacridinium ion
0E Parameter: -7.15
***Acc. Chem. Res. 2003, 36, 66-77
DOI: 10.1021/ar020094c
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p-AniCH=N+Me2 (in MeCN)
MeCNE Parameter: -10.69
***J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2013, 135, 6579-6587
DOI: 10.1021/ja401106x
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p-CF3-C6H4-CH=N+Me2 (in MeCN)
MeCNE Parameter: -8.34
***J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2013, 135, 6579-6587
DOI: 10.1021/ja401106x
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pfp(Ph)CH+
0E Parameter: 5.20
*****J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2012, 134, 13902-13911
DOI: 10.1021/ja306522b
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PhCH=N+(CH2)4 (in MeCN)
MeCNE Parameter: -9.35
***J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2013, 135, 6579-6587
DOI: 10.1021/ja401106x
image of molecule

PhCH=N+(CH2)5 (in MeCN)
MeCNE Parameter: -9.60
***J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2013, 135, 6579-6587
DOI: 10.1021/ja401106x
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PhCH=N+Me2 (in MeCN)
MeCNE Parameter: -9.27
***J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2013, 135, 6579-6587
DOI: 10.1021/ja401106x
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pipN+=CH-CH-Ph
0E Parameter: -10.30
*Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2008, 47, 8723-8726
DOI: 10.1002/anie.200802889
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pop(Ph)CH+
0E Parameter: 2.90
*****J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2001, 123, 9500-9512
DOI: 10.1021/ja010890y
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pop(tol)CH+
0E Parameter: 2.16
***Acc. Chem. Res. 2003, 36, 66-77
DOI: 10.1021/ar020094c
image of molecule

pTolCH=N+CH2 (in MeCN)
MeCNE Parameter: -9.64
***J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2013, 135, 6579-6587
DOI: 10.1021/ja401106x
image of molecule

pyrN+=CH-CH-Ph
0E Parameter: -9.80
***Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2008, 47, 8723-8726
DOI: 10.1002/anie.200802889
image of molecule

tol(Ph)CH+
0E Parameter: 4.43
*****J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2012, 134, 13902-13911
DOI: 10.1021/ja306522b
image of molecule

tritylium ion (Ph3C+)
0E Parameter: 0.51
-J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2003, 125, 286-295
DOI: 10.1021/ja021010y
image of molecule

tropylium ion
0E Parameter: -3.72
***Acc. Chem. Res. 2003, 36, 66-77
DOI: 10.1021/ar020094c
image of molecule

Vilsmeier ion
0E Parameter: -5.77
*Acc. Chem. Res. 2003, 36, 66-77
DOI: 10.1021/ar020094c